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Poster Session Title. September Title of presentation. Hisatsugu Yamasaki. Umpei Miyamoto. Takashi Ohki.

Single-molecule analysis of myosin IX by optical trap nanometry. Sergey V. How load controls the processivity of the oppositely directed motors, myosins V and VI.

Yasushi Matsunaga. A new Landau mode in current-carrying carbon nanotubes. Yusuke Oguchi. Angular dependence of ADP dissociation kinetics in myosin V under directional loading.

Sumiko Kida. Shin-ya Komura. Pattern formation induced by the collective motion of granular particle interacting with the motion of interface.

Tomoka Sunaga. Yuta Takahashi. Effects of Dispersion on Generation of Squeezed Light. Shigehito Tanahashi.

Interaction between circular vection strength and posture. Masaki Nakagawa. Statistical properties of dissipative linear random mapping having infinite invariant density.

Junichi Harada. Masato Fujiyoshi. Takahito Mitsui. A mathematical model for the intermittent behavior of animal locomotions. Mitsuteru Mimura.

Daisuke Yamamoto. Yoko Ishii. Non-linear Rheology of Lyotropic Lamellar Phases. Yukinori Sasagawa. Hiroki Nagakura.

Tai Tanaka. Hiroyuki Kubo. Syuya Ohta. Measurements of charge changing cross sections for iron nuclei on hydrogen to estimate GCR path length distribution in the galaxy.

Tomo Tanaka. Construction of mass operator via loop quantum gravity. Takehito Suzuki. Large Magnetocapacitance of a spinel Mn 3 O 4 single crystal.

Thermoelectric properties of Ni-doped LaRhO 3. Yuta Shimamoto. Self-regulatory mechanisms of force generation in the contractile system of muscle.

Yuko Urakawa. Cosmological perturbations in Stochastic gravity. Statistical properties in the spring-block model for earthquakes.

Michitaka Katsumura. Temperature and magnetic-field dependence of. Junichi Masuzawa. Kohei Azumi. Resistance switching with applied electric field studied by microspectroscopy.

Daisuke Satoh. Haruki Takei. Magnetic-field effect in spinel FeV 2 O 4. Nobuhiro Umehara. Emiko Nakamura. Molecular dynamics study on the effect of electrostatic interactions on the F-actin stability.

Kohei Meguro. Tomohiro Suko. Yoshihiro Takahashi. Thermoelectric properties of nano-sized Ca 0. Shin Yoshida. Spin-state transition under pressure in Sr 0.

Naoki Takasugi. Kentaro Osawa. Fano effect in a Josephson junction. Ryoko Ichihara. Yuki Terakawa. Quantum fluctuations on a bosonic Abrikosov lattice in bilayer system.

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Dialogue conclusion — Beading Lesson: Nani ga osoroshii ka? Dialogue — Dialogue Reading Lesson: Nihon no nats' conclusion.

Cardinal Numbers: Ja- panese set. Reading Lesson: Sekku no hanashi. Dialogue conclusion. Reading Lesson: Nihon no gakko.

Reading Lesson: Nihon no gakko conclusion. Dialogue con- tinuation — Cardinal Numbers. Names of years, months, days of the week, the date, duration, hours, age, multiplication- table, fractional numbers.

Reading Lesson: kekkon no hanashi. The Potential. Read- ing Lesson: kekkon no hanashi, con- tinuation. Reading Lesson: kekkon no hanashi continuation.

True Adverbs. Reading Lesson: kekkon no hanashi conclusion.. Adverbs of Place and Time. Reading Lesson: shi no ji-girai Dialogue continuation — The Adverbial Form in ku, the Adverbial Dative.

The Subordinative used adverbially. Reading Lesson: shi no ji-girai continuation. Read- I ing Lesson: shi no ji-girai continua- tion. True Postpositions.

Reading Lesson: shi no Ji-girai continuation. True Postpositions continuation. Quasi- Postpositionsand Conjunctions. Bead- ing Lesson: shi no ji-girai continua- tion.

The Interjection. Beading Lesson: shi no ji-girai conclusion. The Plural. The present book deals exclusively in colloquial Japanese — that is, in the language spoken in Japan, and, more particularly, spoken by the educated people of the capital.

The written language is a language of its own, using its own grammar, and which must be made the object of a special study. The vocabulary of both of them includes numerous words borrowed from the Chinese, though that of the spoken language to a lesser extent than that of the written.

Japanese writing consists of the Chinese characters, which are such as express each notion by a special symbol. There are, moreover, two kinds of Japanese syllabaries, one, more simple, called Katakana, the other, more complex and used in many variations, called Eiragana.

The number of syllables contained in Ja- panese is 47, or, if we count all the sounds that are produced by the assimilation of two syllables, so far as the native syllabic writing is capable of representing them, A number of combinations of sounds cannot, however, be pointed out by the native syllabaries.

The Kana is almost only used to write the postpositions and verbal terminations, and for the transliteration of foreign words, or, as in newspapers and novels, to write the Japanese reading of the Chinese characters by the side of the latter, a kind of interlinear translation or commen- tary for the use of less learned readers, or, in dictionaries, to explain the Chinese characters, and so on.

Without studying at the same time the Chinese writing, it is of no particular use to learn to write or read the Kana, The colloquial language may, moreover, be well trans- literated by Roman letters.

The system of transliteration adopted in this book was first employed by a society Japanese Grammar. Whenever these two letters are inaudible or nearly so, in pronunciation, they have been dropped and substi- tuted by an apostrophe.

In general the said transliteration is based on these rules : The consonants are pronounced about the same as in English, the vowels as in Italian or German.

All vowels are short unless marked with the sign of long quantity. Long vowels must be carefully pronoun- ced long, as there are many words of different meanings which sound entirely ahke except in so far as their vowels are of different length.

In Tokyo the syllables shu and ju are often pronoun- ced ski and jiy the syllable yu Uke i in "bitter". Initial u before m is in a few words pronounced m — viz.

The same syllable hi in zehi, positively, jihi, compassion, is without equivalent in English; it sounds like ch.

I is missing. Hf sounds like the z in "zeal". In pronouncing them, the organs of speech must remain awhile in the same position before passing over to the following vowel, but without making a pause between one consonant and the other, or between the consonants and the vowel.

Several consonants undergo a change when the word which begins with one of them is used as the second component of a compound.

In Tokyo they do not make such distinctions. Tokyo people have a tendency to double the con- sonant of some words; thus they pronounce minna for wima, bakkari for bakari, etc.

Another change, but which does not take place regularly, affects the letter e, which in some cases when it is the final sound of the first component of a com- pound passes to a, thus: sake, wine, and te, a hand, becones sakate, a tip to a servant, etc.

Other letter-changes will be spoken of in the gram- matical part. Japanese has no tonic accenf as English; all the syllables of a word are pronounced equally, only that long vowels, and syllables with double consonants, are spontaneously emphasised.

Within a sentence it is especially the particles which are emphasised. In interrogative sentences the inter- rogative tone is laid on the particle ka if the sentence does not begin with an Interrogative Pronoun or Adverb, otherwise that Pronoun or Adverb is emphasised.

First Lesson. The Japanese Language has no Article. No distinction is, as a rnle, made between the Singnlar and Plural, hito means: man, a man, the man, men, the men; yak'sha means actor as well as actress, uma means horse and horses.

The exact meaning of a word must in every case be concluded from the context, or decided by the demon- strative or possessive pronouns, numerals, adjectives, proper names, or other qualifying words added to the noun.

For human beings there are besides a number of expressions, mostly names of relationship, which include the idea of sex, — mz. Japanese has no declension.

The relations of case are, as in English, indicated by particles, which, however, are not pla? Thus: hito ga Nominatiye case a man, the man, men, the men hito no Genitive case of a man, of the man, a man's, the man's, of men, of the men, men's, the men's hito ni Dative case to a man, to the man, to men, to the men hito wo Accusative case a man, the man, men, the men.

Besides these four cases we distinguish a fifth, the Absolute case, denoted by the particle wa and used 6 Lesson 1. The object of thus detaching a part of a sentence either is to emphasise the meaning of the sentence rather than that of the detached part, or to place one thing in opposition to another thing, expressed or not.

The predicate can thus form a sentence by itself. The case of the subject is the Nominative. But, like any other part of the sentence, the subject may be detached and placed in the Absolute case.

Gramma- tically speaking, it then is no longer the subject, though it corresponds to it in English, just as the subjectless sentence that follows is, in English, rendered by what is called the predicate in that language.

Sentences of the latter kind will be treated of in Lessons 24 and Here the question is: whether in a given case the subject logi- cally speaking should be placed in the Nominative, or detached from the sentence and put in the Absolute case.

This question is to be decided by the following two rules : a In questions about the subject who, what, which, does, or is?

It corresponds to the emphasised subject in English. The sentence following the Absolute Lesson 1.

As for the placing in the Absolute case of other parts of the sentence but the subject — namely, the Dative ni wa , the Accusative woba, or generally merely wa , adverbs or adverbial expressions of time or place, the object is always to oppose them to another Dative or Accusative or to another time or place, expressed or not, though with regard to time and place such opposition does not generally strike a European's mind.

Not seldom two parts of a sentence, an adverbial expression and the subject, are detached and each put in the Absolute case. Examples: a Who is small?

Mori has come. Mori son ga hinmshHa. Mori come? Mori san wa himashHa ha? As for this man, there is much money. Examples of other parts of the sentence put in the Absolute case: To me this is unintelligible or: As for me, I cannot understand this.

In antithetical clauses the subject of either clause is put in the Nominative if it be the subjects which stand in opposition to each other, whereas either subject is put in the Absolute case if it be the predi- cates which are in opposition to each other.

Examples: Which of these articles are good, and which are bad? Kono shinamono no uchi de dochira ga ii ka dochira ga warui ha?

More particular rules on the use of wa will be found further on in this book. The Adjectlye. The true adjective when used attributively, or when used predicatively in the Present tense, ends in i.

Thus: chiisai kodomo means: A little child, the little child, little children, the little children; kodomo wa chiisai means: A, or the, child is small, children, or the children, are small.

Order of Words. Qualifying words precede those they qualify; thus: the attribute, as well as the genitive, precede the noun which they qualify, the adverb precedes the verb or adjective.

Subordinate clauses precede the principal sentence. Conjunctions, with a few exceptions, are placed at the end of the dependent sentence immediately after the finite verb or adjective.

The direct and indirect objects precede the verb. The principal sentence terminates by the finite verb or adjective.

In interrogative sentences the con- struction remains the same, but the interrogative par- ticle ka is added at the end of the sentence.

The par- ticle ka may however be omitted if the sentence contains some other interrogative word interrogative pronoun or adverb.

Lesson 1. Beading Lesson. Eonnichi wa tenki ga ii kara, uchi no niwa ye ikimasho. Is the weather fine to-day? It is very fine.

Will we go into the garden? Indeed, the garden is very small. Are there flowers and trees in the garden? As for flowers, there are many, but trees are few.

Do you like flowers? I like flowers very much. Are violets blue? Violets are lilac. What leaves are narrow? The leaves of the pine-tree are narrow.

When do the leaves of other trees fall olf? They fall off in the beginning of winter. What kind of fish are there in this small pond?

There are many carp in it. Do you like fish? I like carp. The days of summer are hot, but in the shade of this tree it is always cool.

Lesson 2. The Verb. The Japanese Verb has ng Infi- nitive. In dictionaries and grammars verbs are named in the Present tense, but in order to form the other tenses and moods, it is necessary to know the stem of the verb.

Verbal stems end either in a vowel or in a consonant. Accordingly we distinguish two classes of verbs: a Verbs with vowel stems, b Verbs with consonantal stems.

The following verbs may serve as examples: I. Class: deru to go out, miru to see; II. Class: 1. The verbs of Class I have a simple and an enlarged stem; those of class 11 have a simple stem and three enlarged stems.

In Class I the simple stem, which always ends in e or t, is obtained by dropping the termination ru of the Present tense, the enlarged stem by adding the syllable re to the simple stem.

It is from this reason that these verbs are conjugated after the model of the consonantal stems. Hence it follows that of verbal forms ending in tsu or chi, the stem ends in t, and of those ending in shi, the stem ends in s.

Simple stem. Enlarged stems. In both classes the tenses and moods are formed by the addition of certain terminations either to the simple or the enlarged stem.

In adding these ter- minations, the stem of Class I does not undergo any alteration ; in Class II, however, the final sound of the stem is, in certain cases, assimilated to the initial sound of the ending.

The assimilation varies, of course, accord- ing to the nature of the final sound of the stem. The verbs of Class IT may therefore be divided into as many groups as their stems end in different sounds.

Thus: 1. The Japanese verb has the following tenses and moods: the Present, the Past, the First Future, the Second Future, the Conditional Present, the Con- ditional Past, the Imperative, and, as peculiar to this language, the Subordinative, the Alternative and the Desiderative.

Besides there are some periphrastic forms, but there is neither a Subjunctive mood nor a Participle. The plain verb cannot be used as a finite verb, except in cases where equality of rank or social position and intimacy of the persons talking with each other allow to neglect ceremony, or when a person is speaking to his own servants.

In other cases special verbs of politeness are added to the plain verb. It is never used as a separate word, but attached as a suffix to the simple stem of the verbs of Class I and to the i-stem of the verbs of Class The following table shows the conjugation of all verbs, except those we call Irregular, with the suffix mas' attached to them.

The Imperative and the Alter- native have been omitted for the present ; they will be explained further on. The Desiderative is not formed from mas'.

The conjugation of the plain verb will be treated of in Lesson We will, however, anticipate the for- mation of the Subordinative, because without this form hardly any long sentence can be uttered.

The Subordinative is formed by annexing the termination te to the simple stem of the verbs of Class I or to the i-stem of those of Class U.

In Class II the above-mentioned assimilation takes place, as can be seen from the following table: Class r I. Use of the Sabordinatiye.

When the verbs of two or more clauses are intended to express the same tense and mood, or to depend on the same con- junction, it is only the last verb that takes the termi- nations of tense or mood, or is followed by the con- junction.

The verbs of the previous clauses take the Subordinative form, by which they are subordinated to the last clause. Before hearing the last verb, or the conjunction or interrogative particle, it is impossible to know the tense, or whether the sentence is declarative, or imperative, or interrogative, or conditional, or con- cessive.

Stem Subor dinative I. Am I to po to a porcelain-shop and am I to buy a vase? Very often the Subordinative corresponds to English expressions of another nature — for instance : momo ga nagarete kimashHa.

A peach swam and came that is: came swimming. He returned and came that is: he came back. He took a friend with him and went to the theatre that is: he went to the theatre with a friend.

Momo- taro wa dandan okiku natte makoto ni tsuyoku narimash'ta. Momotaro wa sono dango wo koshi ni ts'kete ie wo dete yama wo koete ikimash'ta.

Numerals like hitots' generally follow the noun. Exercise, Do you like to eat peaches? Yes, I like them very mnch. When the old woman came to the river, she saw a Japanese Grammar.

This sono peach came floating from the upper part of the river. As it looked tasty, the old woman thought to eat it sore wo , but at last tsui ni she took it and went home with it.

The old man returned from the moun- tain ; when he divided the peacb in two, he saw there was a pretty child in it sono naka ni.

The old man and the old woman saw the child and were delighted. They bathed it at once; but when the child lifted up the basin and flung it down "when — flung" is to be rendered by the Condi- tional Past , both were astonished at its strength.

When the child by and by became bigger big; Conditional Past , it went to the Demon's island to take the treasures.

Because the old woman gave millet- dumplings to Momotaro for lunch, Momotaro fastened the dumplings to his loin and went at once out of the house.

Third Lesson. The Negative Voice of all verbs haviug the suffix mas' attached to them will be seen from the following table. Present Past Futurel.

Future Present Condit. Past I. The object of this Lesson is only to give the student an insight into the nature of these expressions and make him familiar with a few examples.

More will be found in Lesson 39, others are scattered throughout the book. Lesson 3. Honorifics are also applied to third persons, but only if the person spoken of holds a higher social position than the person spoken to, or if he is present and not lower in rank.

There are, moreover, other expressions which are only used in speaking of one's own actions or possessions, or of such third persons as are either not present, or lower in rank than the person spoken to.

It should still be remarked that honorifics must not be used indiscriminately, their use being graduated according to the degrees of social rank.

In general the expressions of this kmd may be divided into three classes: a Expressions which can only be apphed to the second and third persons, and others which can only be applied to the first and third persons; b Expressions which in themselves are neither honorific nor imply any relation to the person addressed, but are made honorifics by certain words prefixed to them ; c Respectful and humble verbs.

Examples of a. Shima has come. Even in speaking to or of intimate friends, san or kun cannot be omitted. Ladies, whether married or not, are addressed like gentlemen — that is, by their family-name followed by san, thus: Mrs.

Takikawa Takikawa san! In speaking of ladies, however, it is necessary to use such circumlocu- tions as : Takikawa san no okusama Mrs.

Takikawa, Taki- kawa san no o jo san Miss Takikawa. There are. See Less. For instance: o kuni your country, o uchi or o taku your house, o or go tanjohi your birthday, o yasui go yo des' it is an easy service you demand of me.

There are, moreover, words which are always used with o or go prefixed to them, especially by women and children, without con- veying the idea of doing honour to the person addres- sed, as for instance: go zen dinner, o tento sama the sun, tsuki sama the moon, o tenki the weather, o cha tea, kashi cake, o shiroi powder the cosmetic , go chiso a feast, dinner, go hobi reward, and so forth.

Examples of c. The Imperatives are: nasaimase, kudasaimase, or nasamashiy kudasaimashi, or, more com- monly, nasai, kudasai.

I to the simple stem, in CI. II to the i-stem 22 Lesson 3. For instance: kore wo yonde 0 kurel Read this! Politely one would say kore wo yonde kudasai, or kore wo yomi kudasail Please to read this!

Is your father in good health? Thanks, my father is quite well as ever. How is Mrs. Is Mr. How old is your son? Pray read this letter!

When will you come back? Please hand me over that book there! Take a seat! Has your mother come back already? Best a moment! Momotaro wa inu saru kiji wo tomo ni tsurete Onigashima ye watatte miru to, oni wa mon wo shimete dare mo iremasen'.

He came to a large river. Where did the dog come from? He came from the other opposite side of the river. Were the dumplings he had fastened to Momotaro's loin good dumplings?

They were first-rate Japanese dumplings. Did the dog get a dumpling? Yes hai , he got. Did the other companions get dumplings, too mo?

Yes, the monkey as well as the pheasant the monkey too, the pheasant too got dum- plings. Where did Momotaro lead his companions to where did M.

Did the demons open the gate and allow Momotaro, the dog, monkey, and pheasant to enter let enter? No ie , they had shut the door and did not allow anyone to enter.

Who flew over the fence first? The pheasant flew over the gate, Lesson 4. Inside the gate there were many demons. Those sono demons fought with Momotaro and ya his companions, but Momotaro at last ended by fettering the leader Akandoji.

Then the other demons surrendered. Momotaro took the treasures, had them loaded on a carriage, and returned home with 'them; motte.

The termination i of the true Adjective mentioned in Lesson 1,6 is preceded by one of the vowels a, i, m, o, thus: hayai quick, early, yoroshii good, samui cold, kuroi black.

After dropping the ter- mination V, we obtain the stem of the adjective, thus: kaya yoroshi samu kuro. The new syllables produced by the crasis are: 26 Lesson 4.

To repeat what we have said : there is a form in z, an adverbial form in ku, and a contracted adverbial form. According to what has been said in Lesson 1,6, the verb "to be" is understood when the true adjective in i is used predicatively to express the Present tense.

The adjective is thus used like a noun Lesson 1,7. For instance: it is cold samui, or samui des. The adjective in i is in such cases frequently fol- lowed by the word no or its abbreviation n', which stands for mono concrete thing or koto abstract thing — e.

The adverbial form in ku is used before all verbs; thus also when in Enghsh an adjective is used, as, e, g. By means of agglutinating the conjugational forms of aru to the adverbial form in ku, one more inflection of the true adjective is produced, as shown in the follow- ing table: Subordi native samukiUe samuk'tCy samukutte Present samui it is cold Past samukatta it was cold Lesson 4.

In the colloquial language the verb aru is not used in the negative voice. It is then replaced by the negative adjective nai, which is inflected exactly Uke the other adjectives in i.

When attached to the adverbial form of adjectives, nai serves to form their negative conjugation. Adjective with nai attached to it: Subordipative samuku nakHe Present samuku nai it is not cold Past samuku nakatta it was not cold Future I, samuku nakarO it will probably not be cold Future II.

In the Tokyo colloquial the contracted adverbial form 27 is always used before the verb gozaru in Kyoto, instead of the form in kUy before all verbs , the form in ku only when emphasised by wa ku wa gozai- mas' or go:saimasen.

Various as the above forms are, they do not differ so much in meaning as in the degrees of politeness. The Present tense in i, and the adverbial form in hi with aru agglutinated to it, altogether belong to the familiar style.

The forms in n' des are somewhat po- liter, but it is the contracted form with gozaru which is decidedly polite.

As to prefixing o or go to the adjective, cf. Lesson 3, Is that dear? The days have gradually become short. Is your house far? Is this tobacco strong?

It is not strong, but as I have smoked much already, I will leave it. Is there not an interesting book? If this tea-tray is not dear, I will buy it.

If the weather be good to-morrow, I will go to see the Ueno park. Look at that frog! Are there people in your country who eat frogs? There are few people who eat frogs.

The taste aji is not bad, they say, but people eat only the hind- legs. A certain aru frog of Osaka went to see Kyoto, but there being a high mountain between Kyoto and Osaka K, to 6, no aida ni , he ascended it with great difficulty.

On the top he saw another frog and asked: "Are you a frog of this place"? Where are you going?

Is it far from here to Osaka? Fifth Lesson. Examples: bara wa akakHe yuri wa shirokHe na no hana wa kiiroL The rose is red, the lily white, the rape seed blossom is yellow.

As my throat aches to-day and I have a slight headache besides, I will give up the lesson. Very often the Subordinative form and the predicative adjective stand to each other in the relation of cause and effect.

Examples: kono hon wa wakariyasukHe omoshiroi. This book being easy to understand, it is interesting.

The river is shallow and can therefore be. The price being too high, it could not be bought. It is so dark, one cannot see.

It is so hot, I do not know what to do. In all these cases tlie Subordinative corresponds to the predicative form followed by kara because , thus: kawa ga asai kara, tenki ga warui kara, atae ga takai kara, etc.

The Subordinative form is emphasised by pla- cing wa after it. The termination te together with wa is familiarly pronounced cha.

The emphasisied Subordinative followed by an in- transitive mostly negative verb or a predicative noun or adjective has the force of the Conditional.

If in this moun- tainous country it is so cold and there is no fire, one cannot stay there. If there are no proofs, it cannot be believed.

If one has no wife, one is not comfortable. If a watch is too large, it is inconvenient. If the river is so deep, it is dan- gerous to wade through.

The affirmative emphatic Subordinative fol- lowed by one of the expressions ikemasen' or ikenai Japanese Grammar. The trunk must not be too heavy lit.

Examples: anata wa sekken shHe kanemochi ni naranak'te wa naranai. Your clothes are not exactly uglyj still they must be a little better lit. There is however a difference between these forms : the Conditional, and the predicative form followed by to expressing a general condition, while the emphatic Subordinative refers to the concrete case.

The Present Conditional is not materially diffe- rent from the Past Conditional. Hanao Hokiichi. Hanao wa mata kobungaku no chojutsusha to sh'te oi ni na wo agemash'ta.

The shoguns of this family ruled Japan from the year to The neg. Future with to kesshin suru "to make up one's mind to do something".

If to there is money, it is easy to get a living; but if there is no money, one is really at a loss komaru. So sore de wa he studied massage and to play the lute; but because it was awfully disagreeable to him , he at last gave it up: Then he made up his mind to study literature; but because he could not "can" is : koto ga dekiru after the Present read books himself, he had others read to him, and listened; but his memory was good, and he never forgot what he had heard.

If a book is interesting, it is good; but this book is awfully uninteresting. To-day's characters ji have been good, but the paper kami must not be so dirty.

This brush fude is too soft. Sixth Lesson. The Subordinative of the adjective followed by the postposition mo also, though has the force of the Concessive.

Examples: tenki ga warukHe mo soto ye demash'ta. Though the weather was bad, I went out. Though his body is small, his heart is generous.

Though it is nasty, still it is eatable lit. It need not be so good lit. Though it is not so good, it is good. As I need no large house, a small one will likewise do.

The Alternative form of the adjective is al- ways used in pairs, one standing in opposition to the other. It may be rendered in English by "sometimes — sometimes", "at one time — then", "now — then", "partly — partly".

How was the summer-resort lately? In the written language the adjective ends in ki when used attributively, in ski when used predica- tively.

Sometimes the termination ki is also heard in the spoken language, as, for instance, in set speeches. It is added as a suflSx to verbs in Class I.

The predicative form beshi is but rarely used in the colloquial. The adverbial form beku occurs in the expressions narubeku "as possible", nam- beku wa "if possible".

As for the things I must take with me, put them into this box! Is the cuttlefish an eatable fish? Bily something as cheap as possible!

There are still several matters we mnst speak about, but what can we do? You are really happy, there is nobody in the world who does not envy you.

Reading Lesson. Kohutori, mukashifmigi no ho ni oki na kobu no ar a M hitori no kikori ga arimash'ta. There was a woodcutter who had a tumour above his eye me no ue , but this tumour was very big and annoyed him very much to annoy komaru.

When one day he went into the mountain, the weather became bad, and because he could not return home, he crept into the hollow of a tree and waited Subord.

But because the rain gra- dually became heavier hageshii , that place was became awfully lonely and terrible; but he thought, if it does not cease, I shall stay todomaru here till to-morrow.

About goro midnight there gathered many strange beings mono at a place near the tree and opened a feast. Present of kudasaru a glass ippai?

At last about daybreak, when the demons went away, one of them saw the tumqur above the woodcutter's eye.

When you come again to-morrow night myoban , I shall return kaes' it", he said, and went away dekakete shimaimashHa , The woodcutter thought it a very happy event, returned home, told his wife all, and they rejoiced together.

Materials for OonTersation. Good morning. Good day. Good evening. Good night, sleep well. The weather has become very fine indeed.

It has become very hot lately. It is awfully hot. It is terrible indeed. Is your father well? Thanks, he is well as ever.

How is vour mother? How is it with your illness? Thanks, I am much better. Help yourself, please I Thanks, I'll take the liberty.

Once more my sincerest thanks for your kind reception yester- day the other day. Don't mention it; it gave me no trouble. Less polite: do des ka? To squat as the Japanese do: o suwari nasai!

Comparison of Adjectiyes. Comparison is not expressed in Japanese by special forms of the adjective, but by a peculiar turn of the sentence.

There are two cases to be distinguished — namely, whether a standard of comparison is named, or not. Examples: The Japanese language is more difficult than the English language: Nihon-go wa Eigo yori mo mueu- kashii ''The Japanese language is difficult [looked at] from [the standpoint of] the English language".

As the last example shows, yori is also used if one of the things compared, or each of them, is expressed by a verb or a sentence; yori then follows the Present tense.

Thus: hima ga attara, tada uchi ni bonyari shHe oru yori sampo de mo suru or sKta ho ga kusuri desho. If I had time, it would be healthier to take a walk, or do something of the kind, than to sit moping at home.

The word expressing the standard followed by yori may be placed at the head of the sentence, and the word expressing the thing compared may be followed by he side ; or the thing compared followed by ho may precede the word expressing the standard, yori is often 46 Lesson 7.

My younger brother is even taller than I. Examples: In such a case it is better to return home directly : ko iu baai ni wa sugu ni uchi ye kaeru ho ga ii, — Here are several dictionaries — this small one is the best of them : koko ni iroiro no jibiki ga arimas' ga, kono chiisai ho or kono chiisai no ga ii, — What is better, to have money or to have none?

In the above examples, and in all others of the kind the Comparative is not expressed, but implied.

Is there not a still better one? Having put so much money in it, I cannot give up the bu- siness now; but as there is no prospect, it is still worse to continue it.

In order to say that one thing possesses a quality in a lesser degree than another, yori is replaced by hodo quantity, amount.

Lesson 7. To-day it is not so cold as yesterday. The idea that something bad is, for all that, better than something else is expressed by yori unashi des' mashi means 'Increase".

This dictionary is not good ; but, for all that, better than none at all. The repeated article "the — the" is expressed by hodo after the adjective or verb.

Examples: hayai hodo iu The sooner the better lit. Besides this simple expression, there is another in use which is more complicated. Thus ''the sooner the better ' may be expressed so: hayakereha hayai hodo ii lit.

The older a man gets, the more his human feelings develop to a certain degree. The Superlative is expressed by ichiban "number one", "first".

Examples: Nihon no hana no uchi de sakura ga ichiban uts'kushii. Among the Japanese flowers the cherry-blossom is the nicest number one nice. Which of these stories is the most interesting?

A high degree is expressed by mottomo "very", hijo ni "uncommonly", itatte "very", and other words of the kind, thus: itatte shojiki des' He is very honest; hijo ni atsui uncommonly hot.

Most Yezopeople live on the chase. Kawamura Zuiken. Past Participle: sandals thrown away. But if we put up a scaffold, as it will require iru II, 5, intr.

Thereupon the little boy of the proprietor said because. Then he fastened a large rope to the string of the kite, and when he had drawn it near, a workman artisan Lesson 7.

Then the carpenter repaired the roof for little money in the same way as Eawamura had done. I like tea better than sake. Moreover sono hoka to drink tea is better for the body Jcarada no tame than to drink sake.

Which of these two tea- cups chawan do you like best? This is best, I think. This yearns kotoshi no winter is not so cold as the winter of last year sahunen.

This newspaper is not good, but better than to see no paper. The more I read this book Absol. I should like to ask you a question.

The same as above. What can I do for you? Ask, whatever it may be. Will you have the kindness to introduce me to that gentle- man?

Do you know that gentleman? I have not yet had the pleasure of seeing him. This gentleman is Major Kawai.

Very glad to see you. Oh, no, it is I who. When can I see you? When may I come to see you? When may 1 come next time to see you? Pray come to-morrow at 7 o'clock in the morning.

Yes, so it is. Do you say so? Without doubt. So it is, but. Is it all right? TcosOj emphatic particle : "it is on my part".

Eighth Lesson. Quasi-Adjectires, Besides the true adjectives in i there are a great many quasi-adjectives — that is, nouns used as adjectives.

There are two classes of them: a Nouns which become attributive adjectives by the particle na derived from naru to be placed after them, and b Nouns which become attributive adjectives by the case-particle of the Genitive, wo, placed after them.

When used predicatively, both classes are treated like other nouns — that is, they are followed by the verb de am or its equivalents. The noun followed by de serves for the Subordinative form; followed by ni, for the adverbial form.

Which nouns are made adjectives by wa, and which by no, depends on usage. In both classes there are words of Japanese and words of Chinese origin.

Examples of class a. Especially remarkable are yo na and so na. By placing yo na yo means "appearance", "way", "kind" after the Genitive of nouns, the latter can be used as adjectives meaning "similar", "like", "resembling", thus: kiku no yo na hana a chrysanthemumlike flower; anafa no yd na hito a man like you.

The same idea is expressed by mita yo na and mitai na, as, for instance, kuma mita yo na hito or kuma mitai na hito a man like a bear.

A similar instance is: e ni kaita yo na "Uke painted in a picture", as: e ni kaita yo na mus'me a girl beautiful like a picture.

The form yd ni serves as an adverb, thus: yuki no yo ni shiroi white as snow, snow-white ; chi no yo ni akai red as blood. In the same way as in the above examples mita yo na and e ni kaita yo na, yo na is used after other verbs frequently after the Past tense ; for instance: kaze tvo Mita yo na ki ga shimas I feel lit.

I feel as if had understood it, but I have not. Class II i-stem in the sense of "appearing as ", "looking like ", "likely", thus: wwai tasty: umasonaringo a tasty- looking or appetising apple; omoshiroi interesting: omoshiroso na hon a book likely to be interesting ; toi far ; toso na yama a mountain appearing to be far.

When used predicatively, the adjectives formed with War is likely to break out. Different from so after the stem of adjectives and verbs is so des after the predicative form of adjectives and the finite verb.

War is said to have broken out. They say he is not ill. The Quasi-adjectives in wa are treated differently according as so "to appear", or so "they say", follows them: In the case of so "to appear", na is dropped and so added to the noun as a suffix; so "they say", follows na.

Thus : riko na clever : rikoso na hito a cleverlooking man ; rikoso des' he seems to be clever; but: riko na so des' or riko da so des' he is said to be clever.

Some true adjectives in i have, besides, a second form, their stem being followed by na, thus: chiisai small, and chiisa na Lesson 8. The stem with na is only used in the forms indi- cated here; all the other forms are derived from the adjective in i, Examples of Class b.

In many cases the Genitive of nouns serves to re- place adjectives. There are, for instance, no adjectives in Japanese derived from the names of countries, places, mate- rials, time, etc.

Thus : Nihon no Japanese, Shina no Chinese, TokyO no of Tokyo, kin no golden, ffin no of silver, do no of copper, tetsu no of iron, namari no of lead, ishi no of stone, ki no wooden; sakujits' no or kino no yesterday's, konnichi no or kyo no to-day's, asa no morning-, ban no evening-, hiru no day-, yoru no night-, nichinicM no daily, ue no upper, shHa no lower, kono kawa no of this side, mukogawa no of the other side, and so forth.

When the other categories mentioned above names of places, countries, etc. For instance: kin no tokei a gold watch ; kono tokei wa kin des' this watch is of gold.

Matsuyama kagami. To go to the capital is nohorUy to go from the capital kudaru "to descend". At a place named Matsuyama there lived an honest man together with his wife and child.

Was the child of that couple a boy, or was it a girl? It was a very pretty girl. How do shHe did that family live?

They loved the child like a jewel tama in the hand te no naha no and lived affectionately. Why did the husband go up to the capital? Because there was some business, he thought it better to go himself than to send okuru a person.

If one does any ine- vitable business, the quicker one does it, the better it is. There is nothing easier than to get into the train tets'do ni noru and go.

Although the capital was far, there was no other means shikata but to go on foot aruku. Was the child good in the absence of her father?

Like most children are, she was sometimes good, sometimes not good. If you are good, I shall bring yon a nice present from the journey.

The mother being because — was a clever and kind woman, she brought up kydiku sum the child care- fully temei ni. Goran nasai. Goran nasaimasWta ka? I must take leave now.

However, I shall have the honour of seeing you again one of these days. It has got very late. I shall take leave. Please rememher me to all at home.

Well, don't hurry away; do stay a little longer. If you have time to-morrow, come to my house, please.

Have you no message to entrust to me? Well, I am afraid I shall trouble you, but have the kindness to deliver this book to Mr. If you meet Mr.

Sa- saki, remember me to him. Please come again. Come back soon. You are right. Come this way, please. Please look at this! Did you see it?

Let me look at it oncel As you know. All right, sir. If an adjective qualifies a noun which a has been mentioned before, or which b one does not wish to, or cannot, name; or if c the quahty itself, apart from the thing to which it belongs, is to be spoken of, the adjective is followed by the particle no standing either for the noun in question, or for koto or mono, in the latter case meaning "that which has such quality", or ''the fact of being so.

In the case of ni it is to be distinguished whether ni is the Dative that is, whether the noun depends on a verb or the Conjunction; in the case of de, whether de stands for the Subordinative of des' or denotes causation or instru- mentality.

Examples: a. Among the Japanese there are people of high stature, and also such of low stature. This fan is bad, is there no good one?

I'll offer you it as a parting present. This article is worse than yesterday's. What is that white thing in this plate? Umpei Miyamoto.

Takashi Ohki. Single-molecule analysis of myosin IX by optical trap nanometry. Sergey V. How load controls the processivity of the oppositely directed motors, myosins V and VI.

Yasushi Matsunaga. A new Landau mode in current-carrying carbon nanotubes. Yusuke Oguchi. Angular dependence of ADP dissociation kinetics in myosin V under directional loading.

Sumiko Kida. Shin-ya Komura. Pattern formation induced by the collective motion of granular particle interacting with the motion of interface.

Tomoka Sunaga. Yuta Takahashi. Effects of Dispersion on Generation of Squeezed Light. Shigehito Tanahashi. Interaction between circular vection strength and posture.

Masaki Nakagawa. Statistical properties of dissipative linear random mapping having infinite invariant density. Junichi Harada. Masato Fujiyoshi.

Takahito Mitsui. A mathematical model for the intermittent behavior of animal locomotions. Mitsuteru Mimura. Daisuke Yamamoto.

Yoko Ishii. Non-linear Rheology of Lyotropic Lamellar Phases. Yukinori Sasagawa. Hiroki Nagakura. Tai Tanaka. Hiroyuki Kubo.

Syuya Ohta. Measurements of charge changing cross sections for iron nuclei on hydrogen to estimate GCR path length distribution in the galaxy.

Tomo Tanaka. Construction of mass operator via loop quantum gravity. Takehito Suzuki. Large Magnetocapacitance of a spinel Mn 3 O 4 single crystal.

Thermoelectric properties of Ni-doped LaRhO 3. Yuta Shimamoto. Self-regulatory mechanisms of force generation in the contractile system of muscle.

Yuko Urakawa. Cosmological perturbations in Stochastic gravity. Statistical properties in the spring-block model for earthquakes.

Michitaka Katsumura. Temperature and magnetic-field dependence of. Junichi Masuzawa. Kohei Azumi. Resistance switching with applied electric field studied by microspectroscopy.

Daisuke Satoh. Haruki Takei. Magnetic-field effect in spinel FeV 2 O 4. Nobuhiro Umehara. Emiko Nakamura. Molecular dynamics study on the effect of electrostatic interactions on the F-actin stability.

Kohei Meguro. Tomohiro Suko. Yoshihiro Takahashi. Thermoelectric properties of nano-sized Ca 0. Shin Yoshida. Spin-state transition under pressure in Sr 0.

Naoki Takasugi. Kentaro Osawa. Fano effect in a Josephson junction. Ryoko Ichihara. Yuki Terakawa. Quantum fluctuations on a bosonic Abrikosov lattice in bilayer system.

Optical amplified modulation devices using Erbium-doped LiNbO 3 crystal. Rai Kou. Nonlinear optical wavelength converter for Si photonics.

Jo Hattori.

2 thoughts on “Ryoko mitak

  1. Ich denke, dass Sie sich irren. Es ich kann beweisen. Schreiben Sie mir in PM, wir werden reden.

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